Effects of Supplementation of Natucin C on Growth Performace of Broilers

Materials and methods

Natucin C

Prepared by GuangzhouBestide Bio-Science and Technology Co., Ltd., with antibacterial activity being 100000 AU/g. The antibacterial activity was determined by Determination of Antimicrobial Activity in Natucin, Agar Diffusion Method (EnterpriseStandard ofGuangzhou Bestide Bio-Science and Technology Co., Ltd. ).

Diets

The three basal diets for starters, growers and finishers were supplied by the Dongguan New Dadi Feed Co., Ltd. The five starter diets were as follows: (1) basal diet + colistin sulfate premix 10% at 300 g/t + Stafac-500 (50% Virginiamycin) at 40 g/t, (2) basal diet + Natucin C at 0 g/t, (3) basal diet + Natucin C at 50 g/t, (4) basal diet + Natucin C at 100 g/t, (5) basal diet + Natucin C at 150 g/t. The prepared diets were then produced in pellet form. Similarly, the five grower or finisher diets were prepared using the basal diet and also produced in pellet form.

Birds and management

One thousand and six hundred 7-d-old Mahuang female chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicate pens of 80 birds each, and fed the 5 experimental starter (8-21 day), grower(22-42 day) or finisher (43-63 day) diets . During the feeding period, the chicks were provided water and feed ad libitum, and raised on cement floor in illumination (24 h/d) by overhead fluorescent lighting. The daily feed intake per pen of birds and daily feed intake per bird were recorded, and mortality in each pen was recorded if there were birds dead. At the conclusion of feeding experiment, average daily body weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake per chick (ADFI) and ADWG to ADFI ratio (G/F) were calculated.

Statistical analysis

The SPSS statistical software package (version 17.0 for Windows; SPSS China) was used for all statistical analyses. Multiple comparisons among means were determined by one-way ANOVA followed byDuncan’s test (when equal variances were assumed) or Tamhane’s T2 test (when equal variances were not assumed). P values, 0.05 were considered significant. The correlate-bivariate and regression-curve estimation models were used to examine the linear and quadratic correlation between two sets of parameters. When a correlation coefficient (r) was up to 0.70, the correlation was considered high; and when the coefficient of determination(R2) was up to 0.8, the goodness of fit of the observed data to the regression equation was considered acceptable.

Results

Table 1. Eeffects of Natucin C and antibiotics on the performance of starters (7-21d)*

Iterm

antibiotics

Natucin C, g/t

PSE

P

0

50

100

150

Peptide activity in feed, AU/g

0

0

5

10

15

Peptide activity intake, AU/day/bird†

0

0

142

281

411

Initial body weight, g/bird

77.7

76.7

73.8

76.2

74.7

4.99

0.736

Average daily weight gain, g/bird/d

12.4b

12.1b

13.3a

13.0ab

12.1b

0.65

0.028

Average daily feed intake, g/bird/d

28.8

28.8

28.4

28.1

27.4

2.02

0.769

Weight gain / Feed intake, g/g

0.431

0.420

0.468

0.463

0.446

0.036

0.211

*Values are the means of 4 replicates per treatment. a,b,cMeans within a given row with no common superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05). PSE = pooled standard error; P = probability.

†Peptide activity intake (AU/day/kg) = average daily feed intake ×Peptide activity in feed.

The starter performance was shown in Table 1. There were no significant differences in initial body weight, ADFI and G/F among groupsP > 0.05, but ADWG differed significantly among groups. The G/F of Natucin 150,100 and 50 group were 6.19%,10.24% and 11.43% higher than that of Natucin 0 group, indicating Natucin promoted growth of starters by improving feed conversion.

Table 2. Eeffects of Natucin C and antibiotics on the performance of growers (22-43d)*

Iterm

antibiotics

Natucin C, g/t

PSE

P

0

50

100

150

Peptide activity in feed, AU/g

0

0

5

10

15

Peptide activity intake, AU/day/bird†

0

0

271

558

785

Average daily weight gain, g/bird/d

20.2ab

18.6c

19.2bc

20.8a

20.1ab

0.767

0.003

Average daily feed intake, g/bird/d

52.8bc

54.6ab

54.1abc

55.8a

52.3c

1.367

0.008

Weight gain / Feed intake, g/g

0.383a

0.341c

0.355bc

0.372ab

0.385a

0.014

0.001

*Values are the means of 4 replicates per treatment. a,b,cMeans within a given row with no common superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05). PSE = pooled standard error; P = probability.

†Peptide intake (kAU/day/kg) = average daily feed intake ×Peptide activity in feed.

The grower performance was shown in Table 2. There were significant differences in ADWG, ADFI and G/F among groupsP < 0.05. The ADWG or G/F of Natucin 100 and 150 group was the highest among groups, significantly higher than that of the negative (Natucin 0 group) P < 0.05, but did not differed from that of the positive (the antibiotic group)P > 0.05. The Peptide activity intake PAIhad a positive linear relation with G/F, with the regression equation being G/F = 0.00005638PAI + 0.341 (R2 = 0.999), indicating Natucin promoted growth of grower broilers by improving feed conversion.

Table 3. Eeffects of Natucin C and antibiotics on the performance of finishers (44-63d)*

Iterm

antibiotics

Natucin C, g/t

PSE

P

0

50

100

150

Peptide activity in feed, AU/g

0

0

5

10

15

Peptide activity intake, AU/day/bird†

0

0

449

934

1401

Average daily weight gain, g/bird/d

30.1b

26.4c

34.2a

34.1a

32.0ab

1.808

<0.001

Average daily feed intake, g/bird/d

92.6

89.0

89.8

93.4

93.4

3.331

0.155

Weight gain / Feed intake, g/g

0.326b

0.297c

0.381ac

0.366a

0.344ab

0.027

0.001

*Values are the means of 4 replicates per treatment. a,b,c,dMeans within a given row with no common superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05). PSE = pooled standard error; P = probability.

†Peptide intake (kAU/day/kg) = average daily feed intake ×Peptide activity in feed / Initial body weight.

The finisher performance was shown in Table 3. There were significant differences in ADWG and G/F among groupsP < 0.05, with the ADWG or G/F of Natucin 100 being significantly higher than that of negative or positive group, indicating Natucin promoted growth of grower broilers by improving feed conversion.

Table 4. Eeffects of Natucin C and antibiotics on the growth performance and mortality of broilers (7-63d)*

Iterm

antibiotics

Natucin C, g/t

PSE

P

0

50

100

150

Peptide activity in feed, AU/g

0

0

5

10

15

Terminal body weight, g/bird

1298c

1183d

1365ab

1396a

1327bc

33.85

<0.001

Average weight gain, g/bird

1221c

1107d

1291ab

1320a

1253bc

36.11

<0.001

Mortality, %

1.9

2.2

1.6

0.0

0.6

1.51

0.177

*Values are the means of 4 replicates per treatment. a,b,c,dMeans within a given row with no common superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05). PSE = pooled standard error; P = probability.

The growth performance and mortality of broilers in the whole feeding period (7-63d) was shown in Table 4. There was no significant difference in mortality among groupsP > 0.05, but significant difference in average terminal body weight (ATW) or average weight gain (AWG)P < 0.05, with the ATW or AWG of Natucin 50 or Natucin 100 being the highest, higher than that of positive or negative group. According to both ATW and AWG, the appropriate supplementation dose of antibacterial activity (Dose) for whole period would be 5~10AU/g, corresponding to 50~100 g/t of the supplementation dose of Natucin C.

The supplementation dose of antibacterial activity (DA) had a quadratic relation with ATW or AWG, with the regression equations being: ATW = -2.51DA2 + 46.91DA + 1185.55R2 = 0.995and AWG = -2.51DA2 + 46.99DA + 1109.95R2 = 0.994. From the equations the optimal DA was obtained as 9.3 AU/g (Natucin C 93 g/t).

Table 5. The day-based optimal peptide activity intake obtained from the optimal supplementation dose of antibacterial activity multiplied by the day-based average feed intake in Natucin 100 group*.

Starter

Grower

Finisher

Day

Feed intakeg/bird

OPAIAU/bird

Day

Feed intakeg/bird

OPAIAU/bird

Day

Feed intakeg/bird

OPAIAU/bird

8

14.56

135

23

46.1

429

43

74.3

691

9

16.98

158

24

44.7

416

44

77.7

723

10

18.71

174

25

47.3

440

45

80.5

749

11

21.60

201

26

51.8

482

46

81.6

759

12

21.60

201

27

51.9

483

47

83.2

774

13

23.47

218

28

51.8

482

48

84.7

788

14

26.22

244

29

56.2

523

49

84.8

789

15

30.34

282

30

57.3

533

50

85.1

791

16

33.95

316

31

58.2

541

51

85.9

799

17

33.95

316

32

61.6

573

52

87.7

816

18

30.63

285

33

65.3

607

53

88.6

824

19

32.76

305

34

67.7

630

54

89.1

829

20

34.35

319

35

68.8

640

55

91.1

847

21

23.07

215

36

68.1

633

56

91.3

849

37

68.8

640

57

90.5

842

38

65.9

613

58

91.4

850

39

69.7

648

59

91.1

847

40

72.8

677

60

90.9

845

41

71.7

667

61

90.5

842

62

93.1

866

63

94.1

875

*OPAI, day-old-based optimal peptide activity intake  = optimal supplementation dose of antibacterial activity ( 9.3AU/g ) × day-old-based average feed intake in Natucin 100 group.

Because the optimal supplementation dose of antibacterial activity for the whole period was 9.3 AU/g or 93 g/t, close to that of Natucin 100 group, the day-old-based average feed intake in Natucin 100 group was used to be multiplied by the optimal supplementation dose of antibacterial activity ( 9.3AU/g ) to give the day-old-based optimal peptide activity intake ( OPAI ) respectively (shown in Table 5), in order to feed broilers with Natucin in water.

For the starters, the day-old-based OPAI has a quadratic relation r = 0.906with the day of age (d), with the regression equation being: OPAI = -1.824d2 + 64.956d – 288.044 (R2 = 0.821) . For the growers, the day-old-based OPAI has a positive linear relationr = 0.970with the day of age (d), with the regression equation being: OPAI = 14.863d +85.274 (R2 = 0.940) . For the finishers, the day-old-based OPAI has a quadratic relationr = 0.981with the day of age (d), with the regression equation being: OPAI = -0.403d2 + 50.092d – 700.123 (R2 = 0.963) .

Conclusions

  The Natucin, premix of antimicrobial peptide from commensal bacteria of chicks in semi-wild state, improved feed conversion ratio and thus growth of broilers, with the promoting effects being more superior to antibiotics ( colistin sulfate + virginiamycin ) at appropriate supplementation dose.

The effects of Natucin C on performance of broilers was dose-dependent. The appropriate supplementation dose of Natucin100000 AU/gfor yellow broilers ranged from 5~10 AU/g or 50~100 g/t, with the optimal dose being 9.3 AU/g or 93 g/t. The day-old-based OPAIAU/birdfor the starters≤ 21d, growers (22~42d) and finishers ( > 43d) could be calculated and obtained using the following equations respectively: OPAI = -1.824d2 + 64.956d – 288.044 (R2 = 0.821) ; OPAI = 14.863d +85.274 (R2 = 0.940) ; OPAI = -0.403d2 + 50.092d – 700.123 (R2 = 0.963) .



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